Abbreviations

the following prefixes are widely used with the initials of academies and institutions:

A

Associate

F

  Fellow

H

  Honorary academician or member or council member

P

  President or past president

b.

  Born

BWS

  British Watercolour Society

cm.

  centimetre or centimetres

d.

  died

exh.

  exhibited

fl.

  flourished

ICA

  Institute of Contemporary Arts

IELA

  Irish Exhibition of Living Art

IMMA

  Irish Museum of Modern Art

in

  inch or inches

NA

  National Academy, New York

NCA

  National College of Art, Dublin

NCAD

  National College of Art & Design, Dublin

NEAC

  New English Art Club

NGI

  National Gallery of Ireland

OWS

  Old Watercolour Society, London

RA

  Royal Academy, London

RBA

  Royal Society of British Artists

RBS

  Royal Society of British Sculptors

RCA

  Royal College of Art

RE

  Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers

RDS

  Royal Dublin Society

RHA

  Royal Hibernian Academy, Dublin

RI

  Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours

RIA

  Royal Irish Academy

ROI

  Royal Institute of Oil Painters

RSAL

  Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (London)

RSMA

  Royal Society of Marine Artists

RUA

  Royal Ulster Academy of Arts

RWA

  Royal West of England Academy, Bristol

RWS

  Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours

WCSI

  Watercolour Society of Ireland